Science is characterised by openness, subjection to criticism, and development. In its strategy, LUT is committed to the promotion of open science. Open science and the different ways to implement it – open access to research data, publications, research processes and research methods – provide many advantages for the researcher. Publications are demonstrably cited more and receive more attention through open access publishing, the social media, and open access research data. Openness increases the societal impact and possibility for innovations.
LibGuide, guide to open science.
1. Preparation of the research and a research plan
Research projects involve the preparation of a data management plan in connection with the research plan when funding is applied for. Also the publication of results should be taken into consideration when the research is being planned: who decides on the publication time and forum and who has the right to publish the study. A data management plan is recommended or required in research projects with public funding. Such projects also require the open access publication of research results. The requirements are presented on the web pages and application guidelines of funding agencies.
Research contracts need to take into account the open science perspective, meaning that the researcher retains the right to parallel publishing. Also matters related to the openness and confidentiality of research data, its further use, copyrights and utilisation should be agreed on in advance. The data management plan defines e.g. the following:
- How will I collect data?
- How will I store it?
- What will I collect?
- Does the data include details on people?
- Does the data include personal data, i.e. can a person be identified based on it?
- Is any of the data sensitive?
- Does the data contain social security numbers?
- Who has the right to use the data and who decides on its use?
Researchers also have access to DMPTuuli, a data management planning tool (www.dmptuuli.fi) which also contains LUT's instructions for data management.
2. Conducting research
It is important to find out whether research data on or related to the subject is available through open access or licenced sources and whether it can be utilised in your own research similarly to other publications, following the guidelines of the responsible conduct of research. Obtain the required rights or authorisations to utilise the data before starting your own project. If many researchers have contributed to the study, each one has a copyright. Researchers may work with colleagues in their research group on different platforms, where sharing information and working together is reliable and safe in terms of information security. In projects with Horizon 2020 funding, the data management plan can be modified during the course of the research.
3. Publishing and protecting research results and output
LUT recommends storing research data in the IDA storage service maintained by CSC – IT Center for Science. The Finnish Social Science Data Archive is a good solution for storing e.g. interview data and other material containing personal data. Both services will in the future enable long-term storage, and data will be admitted based on the need for long-term storage.
Remember to take into account the restrictions to collecting research data mentioned in your research plan and data management plan, including e.g. the need to protect industrial property rights. Data protection, including e.g. patenting, must be in order before anything is published.
The Etsin research data finder, where the material can be browsed by anyone interested, requires entering descriptive information regarding the research data stored. Data in the IDA storage service is not open-access as a rule, but researchers may open their data in the AVAA service. With permanent identifiers, data in IDA can be linked to e.g. related papers. The use of research data can be enabled and protected at the desired level with Creative Commons licenses.
IDA – storage service for research data, http://openscience.fi/ida
IDA liaison at LUT: firstname.lastname@example.org
Aila portal, Finnish Social Science Data Archive, https://services.fsd.uta.fi/?lang=en
Creative Commons, CC licensing, https://creativecommons.org/
LUT recommends open access publishing and advises researchers to upload parallel publications into the LUTPub repository. As a rule, researchers publish their research in the forum that is the most advantageous for the researcher professionally and for the university. Most funding agencies require the open access publishing of research. The Academy of Finland, Tekes, and Horizon 2020 recommend so-called green or gold open access publishing.
Green OA articles are published normally in scientific journals and as soon as possible as a parallel copy in LUT's online repository. Publishers may impose an embargo period delaying parallel publications. The maximum embargo period approved by funding agencies is 6 months, with the exception of humanities and social sciences, for which it is 12 months.
Gold OA articles are published in open access journals which usually involve an article processing cost (APC). The article is stored separately in an open publication repository. In hybrid OA publishing, access to a desired article is purchased. LUT and funding agencies do not recommend this option because it involves paying for both the journal subscription and open access. Major funding agencies (e.g. the Academy of Finland and Tekes) approve publishing-related expenses as project expenses.
A publication agreement must also provide the researcher the right to parallel publishing. Before publishing a parallel copy, you should make sure that you are authorised to do so. The policies of different journals can be initially checked from the Sherpa-Romeo service, but the matter must ultimately be verified from the publication agreement or the publisher. Copyright policies are usually available in the instructions for authors on the publisher's web site. Parallel publishing must also be agreed on with the co-authors.
Many larger publishers require authors to have an ORCID account. LUT expects researchers to set up their own ORCID account; this is also the national recommendation. The account ensures that researchers get credit for their work. It also helps the follow-up and evaluation of the research.
ORCID account, http://orcid.org/
Publication Forum, http://www.julkaisufoorumi.fi/en
DOAJ database, http://doaj.org
LUTPub repository, http://www.lut.fi/web/en/library
OpenAIRE European research infrastructure, www.openaire.eu
Sherpa-Romeo database, www.sherpa.ac.uk
Open science publication guide LibGuide, http://libguides.lut.fi/open-science/scientific-publishing
5. Ensuring and maintaining the value of research results
The research and the attention it receives can be assessed with bibliometric and altmetric methods. Data stored in the IDA storage service may also be preserved long-term through the PAS service. The need for long-term preservation should be evaluated during the research work.
6. Utilisation of research
One of the goals of open science is the utilisation of prior research. Before you start your own project, remember to obtain the rights or authorisations to utilise the research data of others. If many researchers have contributed to the study, each one has a copyright. If an author grants an outsider the right to utilise his or her research results, the author must verify that he or she is entitled to do so. For example, consent from all authors must be secured before concluding an agreement with a publisher, unless a separate agreement on the matter has already been made.
Open research – open access publications, methods and open data – may yield big data and become a resource for citizen science. The research cycle starts a new round.